Ethnic cleansing in the Soviet Union. Note: Varies by jurisdiction. Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people usually defined as an ethnicnationalracialor religious group in whole or in part. The United Nations Genocide Conventionwhich was established indefines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such" including the killing of its members, causing serious bodily or mental harm to Bonjour Kathrin - Caterina Valente - Bonjour Kathrin of the group, deliberately imposing living conditions that seek to "bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part", preventing births, or forcibly transferring children out of the group to another group.
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaustthe Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americasthe Greek genocidethe Assyrian genocidethe Serbian genocidethe Holodomorthe Indonesian genocide the Guatemalan genocidethe Bangladesh genocidethe Cambodian genocideand after the Bosnian genocidethe Anfal genocidethe Darfur genocidethe Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.
Others are listed in Genocides in history and List of genocides by death toll. The Political Instability Task Force estimated that, between anda total of 43 genocides took place, causing the death of about 50 million people. Beforevarious terms, including "massacre," "extermination,"  and " crimes against humanity " were used to describe the intentional systematic killings.
InWinston Churchillwhen describing the German invasion of the Soviet Unionspoke of "a crime without a name". The book describes the implementation of Nazi policies in occupied Europeand cites earlier mass killings. According to Lemkin, genocide was "a coordinated strategy to destroy a group of people, a process that could be accomplished through total annihilation as well as strategies that eliminate key elements of the group's basic existence, including language, culture, and economic infrastructure".
Lemkin defined genocide as follows:. Generally speaking, genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation. It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves.
The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups. Lemkin's lifelong interest in the mass murder of populations in the 20th century was initially in response to Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP killing of Armenians in    and later to the mass murders in Nazi-controlled Europe.
It happened to the Armenians, then after the Armenians, Hitler took action. After the Holocaust, which had been perpetrated by Nazi Germany and its allies prior to and during World War IILemkin successfully campaigned for the universal acceptance of international laws defining and forbidding genocides.
Inthe first session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution that "affirmed" that genocide was a crime under international law and enumerated examples of such events but did not provide a full legal definition of the crime.
Genocide is a denial of the right of existence of entire human groups, as homicide is the denial of the right to live of individual human beings; such denial of the right of existence shocks the conscience of mankind, results in great losses to humanity in the form of cultural and other contributions represented by these human groups, and is contrary to moral law and the spirit and aims of the United Nations.
Many instances of such crimes of genocide have occurred when racial, religious, political and other groups have been destroyed, entirely or in part. It contains an internationally recognized definition of genocide which has been incorporated into the national criminal legislation of many countries, and was also adopted by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Courtwhich established the International Criminal Court ICC.
Article II of the Convention defines genocide as:. The first draft of the Convention included political killings, but these provisions were removed in a political and diplomatic compromise following objections from some countries, including the USSRa permanent United Nations Security Council member.
The Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP views were also shared by a number of other States for whom it is difficult to establish any geographic or social common denominator: Lebanon, Sweden, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, the Philippines, the Dominican Republic, Iran, Egypt, Belgium, and Uruguay. The exclusion of political groups was in fact originally promoted by a non-governmental organization, the World Jewish Congressand it corresponded to Raphael Lemkin's vision of the nature of the crime of genocide.
The Convention's purpose and scope was later described by the United Nations Security Council as You Are Everything - Various - Rhythm & Soul (Du RhythmNBlues À La Soul, 100 Titres Qui Ont Marqué. The Convention was manifestly adopted for humanitarian and civilizing purposes.
Its objectives are to safeguard the very existence of certain human groups and to affirm and emphasize the most elementary principles of humanity and morality. In view of the rights involved, the legal obligations to refrain from genocide are recognized as erga omnes. When the Convention was drafted, it was already envisaged that it would apply not only to then existing forms of genocide, but also "to any method that might be evolved in the future with a view to destroying the physical existence of a group".
The Convention must be interpreted in good faith, in accordance with the ordinary meaning of its terms, in their context, and in the light of its object and purpose. Moreover, the text of the Convention should be interpreted in such a way that a reason and a meaning can be attributed to every word.
No word Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP provision may be disregarded or treated as superfluous, unless this is absolutely necessary to give effect to the terms read as a whole. Genocide is a crime under international law regardless of "whether committed in time of peace or in time of war" art.
Thus, irrespective of the context in which it occurs for example, peacetime, internal strife, international armed conflict or whatever the general overall situation genocide is a punishable international crime. Under international law, genocide has two mental or mens rea elements — the general mental element and the element of specific intent dolus specialis.
The general element refers to the whether the prohibited acts were committed with intent, knowledge, recklessness, or negligence. For most serious international crimes, including genocide, the requirement is that the perpetrator act with intent. Germany case that, inthe majority of legal scholars took the narrow view that "intent to destroy" in the CPPCG meant the intended physical-biological destruction of the protected group, and that this was still the majority opinion.
But the ECHR also noted that a minority took a broader view, and did not consider biological-physical destruction to be necessary, as the intent to destroy a national, racial, religious or ethnic group Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP enough to qualify as genocide. In the same judgement, the ECHR reviewed the judgements of several international and municipal courts. It noted that the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Court of Justice had agreed with the narrow interpretation that biological-physical destruction was necessary for an act to qualify as genocide.
The ECHR also noted that at the time of its judgement, apart from courts in Germany which had taken a broad viewthat there had been few cases of genocide under other Convention states' municipal lawsand that "There are no reported cases in which the courts of these States have defined the Die Choreographie Der Schönen Welt - Epilog & Misanthrop - Wille Und Wahn of group destruction the perpetrator must have intended in order to be found guilty of genocide.
The phrase "in whole or in part" has been subject to much discussion by scholars of international humanitarian law. In Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic — Appeals Chamber — Judgment — IT ICTY 7 19 April  paragraphs 8, 9, 10, and 11 addressed the issue of in part and found that "the part must be a substantial part of that group. The aim of the Genocide Convention is to prevent the intentional destruction of entire Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP groups, and the part targeted must be significant enough to have an impact on the group as a whole.
The judges continue in paragraph 12, "The determination of when the targeted part is substantial enough to meet this requirement may involve a number of considerations. The numeric size of the targeted part of the group is the necessary and important starting point, though not in all cases the ending point of the inquiry. The number of individuals targeted should be evaluated not only in absolute terms, but also in relation to the Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP size of the entire group.
In addition to the numeric size of the targeted portion, its prominence within the group can be a useful consideration. If a specific part of the group is emblematic of the overall group, or is essential to its survival, that may support a finding that the part qualifies as substantial Horsey Marie - Yukari Fresh - Trefoils Hat the meaning of Article 4 [of the Tribunal's Statute].
In paragraph Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP the judges raise the issue of the perpetrators' access to the victims: "The historical examples of genocide also suggest that the area of the perpetrators' activity and control, as well as the possible extent of their reach, should be considered. While this factor alone will not indicate whether the targeted group is substantial, it can—in combination with other factors—inform the analysis.
The drafters of the CPPCG chose not to include political or social groups among the protected groups. This definition conflicts with modern conceptions of race as a social construct rather than innate fact and the practice of changing religion, etc. International criminal courts have typically applied a mix of objective and subjective markers for determining whether or not the targeted population is a distinct group.
Differences in language, physical appearance, religion, and cultural practices are objective criterion that may show that the groups are distinct.
However, in circumstances such as the Rwandan genocide, Hutus and Tutsis were often physically indistinguishable. The Genocide Convention establishes five prohibited acts that, when committed with the requisite intent, amount to genocide.
Although massacre-style killings are the most commonly identified and punished as genocide, the range of violence that is contemplated by the law is significantly broader. While mass killing is not necessary to commit genocide, it has been present in every recognized genocide. A less settled discussion is whether deaths that are further removed from the initial acts of violence can be addressed under this provision of the Genocide Convention.
Legal scholars have posited, for example, that deaths resulting from other genocidal acts including causing serious bodily or mental harm or the successful deliberate infliction of conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction should be considered genocidal killings. This second prohibited act can encompass a wide range of non-fatal genocidal acts. Torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, when committed with the requisite intent, are also genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group.
The ICTY found that both experiencing a failed execution and watching the murder of one's family members may constitute torture. While it was subject to some debate, the ICTY and, later, the Syrian COI held that under some circumstances deportation and forcible transfer may also cause serious bodily or mental harm. The third prohibited act is distinguished from the genocidal act of killing because the deaths are not immediate or may not even come to passbut rather create circumstances that do not support prolonged life.
However, it could also apply to the Armenian death marches, the siege of Mount Sinjar by Daesh, the deprivation of water and forcible deportation against ethnic groups in Darfurand the destruction and razing of communities in Burma. The ICTR provided guidance into what constitutes a violation of the third act. The fourth prohibited act is aimed at preventing the protected group from regenerating through reproduction. It encompasses acts with the single intent of affecting reproduction and intimate relationships, such as involuntary sterilizationforced abortionprohibition of marriage, and long-term separation of men and women intended to prevent procreation.
The final prohibited act is the only prohibited act which does not lead to physical or biological destruction, but rather to destruction of the group as a cultural and social unit.
Boys are typically taken into the group through changing their names to those common of the perpetrator group, converting their religion, and using them for labor or as soldiers. The Convention came into force as international law on 12 January after the minimum 20 countries became parties. At that time however, only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council were parties to the treaty: France and the Republic of I Allegro - Johann Friedrich Fasch - Tempesta Di Mare - Orchestral Music. This long delay in support for the Convention by the world's most powerful nations caused the Convention to languish for over four decades.
Only in Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP s did the international law on the crime of genocide begin to be enforced. UN Security Council Resolutionadopted by the United Nations Security Council on 28 April"reaffirms the provisions of paragraphs and of the World Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity".
In the UN Security Council adopted resolutionwhich noted that "rape and other forms of sexual violence can constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity or a constitutive act with respect to genocide". Since the Convention came into effect in January about 80 United Nations member states have passed legislation that incorporates the provisions of CPPCG into their municipal law. William Schabas has suggested that a permanent body as recommended by the Whitaker Report to monitor the implementation of the Genocide Convention, and require States to issue reports on their compliance with the convention such as were incorporated into the United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torturewould make the convention more effective.
As such the wording of the treaty is not intended to be a definition suitable as a research tool, and although it is used for this purpose, as it has an international legal credibility that others lack, other definitions have also been postulated.
The exclusion of social and political groups as targets of genocide in the CPPCG legal definition has been criticized by some historians and sociologists, for example M. Hassan Kakar in his book The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, —  argues that Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP international One Tree Hill - U2 - The Joshua Tree of genocide is too restricted,  and that it should include political groups or any group so defined by the perpetrator and quotes Chalk and Jonassohn: "Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrator.
Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr defined genocide as "the promotion and execution of policies by a state or its agents which result in the deaths of a substantial portion of a group In genocides, the victimized groups Rock-A-Boogie - Ken Elliott - Rock-A-Boogie defined primarily in terms of their communal characteristics, i.
In politicides the victim groups are defined primarily in terms of their hierarchical position or political opposition to the regime and dominant groups. Polsby and Don B. Kates, Jr. If the violence persists for long enough, however, Harff argues, the distinction between Genocide (Instrumental) - Body Snatchers - Genocide EP and complicity collapses.
According to R. Rummel, genocide has 3 different meanings. The ordinary meaning is murder by government of people due to their national, ethnic, racial, or religious group membership. This also includes non-killings that in the end eliminate the group, such as preventing births or forcibly transferring children out of the group to another group.
A generalized meaning of genocide is similar to the ordinary meaning but also includes government killings of political opponents or otherwise intentional murder.
It is to avoid confusion regarding what meaning is intended that Rummel created the term democide for the third meaning.
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