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In the Latvian languagenounsadjectivespronouns and numerals are inflected in six declensions. There are seven cases : nominativegenitivedativeRabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover instrumentallocative and vocative. Latvian has two grammatical gendersmasculine and feminine. Latvian nouns can be classified as either declinable or indeclinable. Most Latvian nouns are declinable, and regular nouns belong to one of six declension classes three for masculine nouns, and three for feminine nouns.
Latvian nouns have seven grammatical cases : nominativegenitivedativeRabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover instrumentallocative and vocative. The instrumental case is always identical to the accusative in the singular, and to the dative in the plural.
It is used Rabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover a free-standing case i. See below for a true prepositional case, the ablative. Exceptions to this include compound nouns and proper names ending in -dis or -tis e. Atisgen. A small subclass of 2nd declension nouns have identical nominative and genitive singular most of them ending in -ens. These are part of the so-called consonant stem nouns: e.
Exceptions to this include loanwords such as epizode gen. The 4th and 5th declensions include a number of masculine nouns e. Some surnames e. Klints belong to the 6th declension for both masculine and feminine . In these cases, the You Wanted It - Various - Uncorked & Unplugged nouns take the same endings as given in the table above, except in the dative singular:.
It has no singular forms, only regular plural forms. This is true of the 2nd declension genitive singular ending -jaall forms of the 2nd declension plural, and the genitive plural of the 5th and 6th declensions ending -ju. German Jotisierungi. Latvian however does not have assimilative palatalization of consonants  and the term "iotation" is used strictly in the sense of stem-final labial consonants being "affixed with an iota " i. For example, the gen. It is, however, still used among people of Latvian origin and books outside of Latvia.
One could argue that the appearance of umlaut in gen. In fact, consonant shift can be viewed as a means of blocking umlaut alternations in nominal paradigm, e. During the Soviet rule one could observe what might seem motivation to simplify consonant shift further. A handbook on Latvian orthography lists the following words as exceptions to consonant shift due to reasons of euphony.
This list Rabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover far from exhaustive. Besides body parts acsauss there is a number of other words that historically do not undergo consonant shift, e.
Words with stem-final -st are not subject to consonant shift this includes all feminine forms of Rabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover nouns e. Further in a number of words consonant shift has been dropped to avoid homophonythus gen.
As has been noted stem-final Sarabande And Variations - Christopher Parkening - Parkening Plays Bach consonants undergo iotation, whereas stem-final unpalatalized coronal Rabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover and affricates undergo case-specific palatalization and unlike Lithuanian, Latvian does not exhibit assimilative palatalization.
However, the last large group Rabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover consonants, the dorsal consonants are an exception to both of these rules. For example:. Some nouns do not belong to any of the declension classes presented above, and show no case or number inflection. For the most part, these indeclinable nouns are unassimilated loanwords or foreign names that end in a vowel. Adjectives in Latvian agree in case, number, and gender with the noun they modify.
In addition, they express the category of definiteness. Latvian has no definite and indefinite Rabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover but the form of the adjective chosen can determine the correct interpretation of the noun phrase. For example, consider the following examples:. But the first sentence contains the indefinite form of the adjective, while the second one contains the definite form. Masculine indefinite adjectives are declined like nouns of the first declension, and feminine indefinite adjectives are declined like Rabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover of the fourth declension.
The nominative form can always be used as a vocative. If, however, the modified noun appears as a vocative form distinct from its nominative form this can only happen with singular nouns, as can be seen from the declension tables abovethen the vocative form of the adjective can optionally be identical to its accusative form in -o.
The third person personal pronouns in Latvian have a regular nominal declension, and they have distinct masculine and feminine Now Let Them Tremble.
- All That Remains - .For We Are Many. The first and second person pronouns, and the reflexive pronoun, show no gender distinction, and have irregular declensions. These forms may replace genitive and accusative pronouns with other prepositions, too. There are five root possessive pronouns that change endings depending on the declension. In addition to the pronouns that have different declensions, there are pronouns that stay the same in all declensions. The same applies to forms derived from kas : nekas "nothing", kaut kas "something", etc.
Other pronouns and determiners exhibit regular indefinite adjectival declension:. In Latvian there are two types of numerals: cardinals and ordinals. The numbers from 1 to 9 are declinable. Ordinal numbers "first", "second", etc. In compound numbers, only the final element is ordinal, e.
The following table illustrates case syncretism in the Latvian instrumental form. In the singular, the instrumental is identical to Rabalder - Syvsover - Syvsover accusative.
In the plural, the instrumental is identical to the dative. Some Damin Gambit - Luna Iz Vode also distinguish an ablative case that is identical to the genitive in the singular and the dative in the plural.
The ablative is generally not presented as a separate grammatical case in traditional Latvian grammars, because it appears exclusively with prepositions. One can say instead that prepositions requiring the genitive Wont Give Up - Various - Luxury Soul 2010 the singular require the dative in the plural. Also it is important to note that the Latvian ablative case is not an archaism but rather an innovation.
The ablative case emerged in Latvian under the circumstances of shifting the government of almost all prepositions in the plural to the dative form. This shift was caused by the loss of the old accusative form in the singular, which became identical to the instrumental form: A. In the plural, most feminine nouns had identical forms for the dative and the instrumental case.
Therefore, the instrumental case merged with the dative in the plural and the accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns had in the meantime levelled their G.
Therefore, almost all the prepositions that governed the genitive started taking the dative-instrumental case in the plural, giving a new birth to the ablative case.
The instrumental case, on the other hand, cannot be eliminated so easily, because it can be used in some contexts without any preposition: . Old Latvian had also a Dual number. Nowadays Outlaw - Dangerous Toys - Dangerous Toys/Hellacious Acres in some dialects the dual might be used only in some words representing body parts, [ citation needed ] e.
The later two are adverb-forming cases. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Indefinite Masculine Feminine singular plural singular plural Nom. Zvaigzne ABC. The Latvian language does not have the assimilative palatalization of consonants. Petitp. Categories : Declension Latvian grammar. Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October CS1 German-language sources de CS1 French-language sources fr. Namespaces Article Talk.
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