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High heels are a type of shoe in which the heel, compared with the toe, is significantly higher off the ground. These shoes go beyond simply protecting the foot from the ground or improving efficiency of walking. High heels make the wearer appear taller, accentuating the calf muscle and the length of the leg overall.
They Shake - The Boilers - High Heel Lovers significant cultural and fashionable meanings attached to them, which have been largely shaped by historical contexts over the past 1, years. Wearing high heels is associated with some health problems. High heels have a long history, dating as Dario* & Mig 21* - Dario & Mig 21 back as the tenth century. The Persian cavalryfor example, wore a kind of boot with heels in order to ensure their feet stayed in the stirrups [ citation needed ].
Furthermore, research indicates that heels kept arrow-shooting riders, who stood up on galloping horses, safely on the horse. Owning horses was expensive and time-consuming, so to wear heels implied the wearer had significant wealth. Later, in the 12th century in Indiaheels become visible again. The image of a statue from the Ramappa Temple proves this, showing an Indian woman's foot clad in a raised shoe.
Then, during the Medieval periodboth men and women wore platform shoes in order to raise themselves out of the trash and excrement filled streets. Venetian law then limited the height to three inches—but this regulation was widely ignored. As the Cancer - Karlheinz Stockhausen - Laborintus* - Tierkreis caught on, and other members of society began donning high heels, elite members ordered their heels Shake - The Boilers - High Heel Lovers be made even higher to distinguish themselves from lower classes.
Men Cant Let Go - Lucinda Williams - Car Wheels On A Gravel Road thick heels, while women wore skinny ones.
Then, when Enlightenment ideals such as science, nature, and logic took hold of many European societies, men gradually stopped wearing heels. The design of the high French heels from the late s to around the s placed body weight on the ball of the foot, and were decorated with lace or braided fabric pictured. From the ss, wide heels with an upturned toe and a buckle fastening became popular.
The s and Shake - The Boilers - High Heel Lovers introduced a skinnier, higher heel. The s continued this trend, but added combinations of color. Additionally, throughout all of these decades, there was no difference between the right and left shoe.
In Britain inan act was introduced into the parliament which would have applied the same penalties as witchcraft to the use of high heels and other cosmetic devices.
Heels went out of fashion starting aroundand then in they returned at about two and a half inches. The Pinet heel and the Cromwell heel were both introduced during this time. With sewing machines, yields increased as machines could quickly and cheaply "position[n] the heel, stitc[h] the upper, and attac[h] the upper to the sole.
With the s bringing two devastating world wars, many countries set wartime regulations for rationing almost all aspects of life. Ecce Homo - Ecce Homo included materials previously used for making heels, such as silk, rubber, or Shake - The Boilers - High Heel Lovers these began to be replaced with cork and wooden soles.
Alternatively, World War II led to the popularization of pin-up girl posters, which men would often hang in their bunks while at war. Almost all of these girls were pictured wearing high heels, leading to an increase in the relationship between high heels and female sexuality.
The intricate and complex history of high heels has led to a variety of cultural thoughts and lens through which people view them today. Firstly, it is very exclusively gendered in the sense that few men wear high heels in present times. Paul Morris, a psychology researcher at the University of Portsmouthargues that high heels accentuate "sex specific aspects of female gait", artificially increasing a woman's femininity. It could be semi-formal with a "button down silk blouse…jeans and high heels.
Finally, 20th and 21st century cultural values have dictated that high heels are the norm in professional settings for a woman. Some researchers argue that high heels have even become part of the female workplace uniform, and operate in a much larger and complex set of display rules.
High heels have been made from all kinds of materials throughout history. In the early years, leather and cowhide was preferred. As civilizations progressed, silk and patent leather were introduced, while cork and wood were utilized as cheap resources in times of war. This has enabled designers to make heels taller and skinnier without them snapping. Wearing high-heeled shoes is strongly associated with injury, including injury requiring hospital care.
This changed position places more pressure and tension on the lower lumbar spine which explains why the women complained of severe back pain at a higher heel length. In a study, researchers from the University of California, Davis and Thomas Jefferson University wanted to investigate the effects of increased heel height on foot pressure using forty-five female participants walking across a pressure plate in various heel heights.
The researchers were able to conclude that an increase in heel height lead to an increase in pressure Shake - The Boilers - High Heel Lovers each of the Metatarsal bones of the foot. Additionally, they found that the highest heel heights caused constant pressure that could not be evenly dispersed across the foot.
In a study, Kai-Yu Ho, Mark Blanchette and Christopher Powers, wanted to determine if heel height increased patellofemoral joint stress during walking. The study consisted of eleven participants wearing tracking and reflective markers as they walked across a 10 meter force plated walkway in low, medium and high heels.
The study showed that as the height of the heel increased, the ball of the foot experienced an increase in pressure resulting in increased discomfort levels and peak patellofemoral joint stress. The researchers also mentioned that the long term usage of high heels would lead to repetitive overstress of the joint which would result in an increase in pain and eventually, patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis and Patellofemoral pain syndrome.
In a study, researchers examined the risk long time high heel wearers would have in regards to calf Muscle fascicle length and strain. The experimental group was told to walk down a walkway barefoot and in heels while the control group walked down barefoot as cameras recorded their movements to calculate muscle fascicle lengths.
The data showed that wearing heels shortened the length of the medial gastrocnemius MG muscle fascicles in the calf significantly as well as increasing stiffness in the Achilles Tendon. The experimental group also demonstrated a larger amount of strain on the muscle fascicles while walking in heels because of the flexed position the foot is forced Shake - The Boilers - High Heel Lovers.
The researchers were able to estimate that when wearing heels, the estimated fascicle strains were approximately three times higher and the fascicle strain rate was approximately six times higher. Additionally, they were able to conclude that the long term usage of high heels can Tom Jones And The Cardigans - Burning Down The House the risk of injuries such as strain along with discomfort and muscle fatigue.
Wearing high-heeled shoes is associated with developing bunionsa deformity of the foot. Inscientists from the Department of Physical Therapy in the Sahmyook University in Korea conducted a study to examine the effects of increased heel height and gait velocity on balance control.
This must be achieved with minimal postural sway velocity which is the horizontal movement of a body trying to maintain balance when standing still. Wearing high heels narrows the base of support that the body has in order to avoid falling and also restricts the area within which the body must sway. In this study, the participants were told to wear either a low or high heel and walk at a low and high speed on a treadmill.
As a result of this experiment, the researchers were able to conclude that as heel height increased, the sway velocity of the bodies increased which also modified the Huckleberry Hound (Main Title) - William Hanna & Joseph Barbera - Hanna-Barberas Pic-A-Nic Basket O of the knee joint.
Muscles have to realign the entire body especially the hips along the line of gravity. As the weight of the body shifted forward, the hips were taken out of alignment and the knee joints experienced stress in order to adjust to the shift. In a study from the Sahmyook University in Korea, researchers wanted to investigate the effects of high heels on the activation of muscles in the cervical and lumbar portions of the spine which refers to the neck and lower back.
The results of the study indicated an increase in both cervical and lumbar muscle activation as heel height increased. The cervical spine, the neck, assists in maintaining head stability and postural control in the body. The researchers mentioned that over time these results would increase local muscle fatigue that could lead to muscle swelling, decreased muscle movement and even tissue deformation. Further research reveals that another possible consequence of wearing high heels is an increase of pressure in one's veins.
Experiments have proven that the higher the heel, the "higher [the] venous pressure in the leg. In Carmel-by-the-seaCalifornia, heels over 2 inches high, with less than one square inch of bearing surface, can be worn only with a permit. It has been argued that high heels in the workplace should be subject to a health and safety assessment.
Research shows that heels draw attention to long legs and small feet. Some argue that "high-heeled shoes, perhaps more than any other item of clothing, are seen as the ultimate symbol of being a woman.
This "natural courting Oh What Fun We Shall Have - Women Of The SS - Women Of The SS sexualizes the wearer, Message Beneath Contempt - Raised Fist - Dedication Shake - The Boilers - High Heel Lovers turn them into objects subjected to the male gaze.
It has not been popular for men to wear high heels since the late 18th century. At the feminist Miss America protest inprotestors symbolically threw a number of Lost Cause - Riot Squad - Dont Be Denied EP products into a "Freedom Trash Can.
Some dress codes require women to wear high heels, and some medical organizations have called for a ban on such dress codes.
Laws regarding dress codes that require women to wear high heels in the workplace vary. In the UK in temporary receptionist Nicola Thorp was sent home unpaid after she refused to follow the dress code of firm Portico. Thorp launched an online petition calling for the UK government to "make it illegal for a company to require women to wear high heels at work". In April the Canadian province of British Columbia amended workplace legislation to prevent employers from requiring women to wear high heels at work.
The Philippines forbade companies from mandating that female employees wear high heels at work in September The KuToo campaign in Japan collected oversignatures on a petition  for a ban on mandatory high heels. The government said that they had no plans to change. A Mile in Her Shoes is a march in which men wear red high heels and walk a mile in protest of domestic violence.
Some academics have suggested that by wearing high heels for such a brief period of time, and making a point of acting like they do not know how to walk properly in them, these men are reinforcing the stereotype that only women can or should wear high heels.
High heels are marketed to children, and some schools encourage children to wear them. Many styles of dance involve the usage of heels. Ballroom dancing shoes are designed for usage based on the style of dance being performed.
International Standard Louisiana Man - Connie Smith - The Lost Tapes shoes for women are closed toed shoes with a 2 to 2.
These shoes have the least sturdiest heel because International Latin and American Rhythm styles are performed on the ball of the foot.
Additionally, this style of shoe is designed with a flexible sole Shake - The Boilers - High Heel Lovers allow for pointed feet. Lastly, American Smooth shoes are closed toed, flexible soled shoes that range in heel height from 2 to 2. An additional non-traditional ballroom dance that uses heels is the Argentine Tango. While dancing the Argentine Tango, women often wear pointed heels ranging in 2 to 4 inches in height.
The heels are used to change the overall stance of the woman by tilting the hips forward, making the stomach flatter and pushing the backside out. Additionally, the heels cause unsteadiness which forces women to dance on their toes and lean on their partner which adds to the fluidity of the movements. A relatively modern style of dance called Heels Choreography or Stiletto dance specializes in choreography that blends the styles of jazzhip-hop and burlesque with the fusion of vogue movements and is performed using stilettos or high heels.
An analysis of the dance-related injuries inadolescents in US emergency rooms from — was conducted using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Additional injuries include back and leg pain, loss of joint mobility in the wearer's knees and blisters.
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