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Dobsonflies are a subfamily of insectsCorydalinaepart of the Megalopteran family Corydalidae. The larvae commonly called hellgrammites are aquaticliving in streamsand the adults are often found along streams as well. The nine genera of dobsonflies are distributed in the AmericasAsiaand South Africa. The origin of the word "dobsonfly" is unclear.
John Henry Comstock used the term in reference to these insects in his book Insect Life but did not explain it. He also mentioned that anglers used the word "hellgrammite" for the aquatic larvae they used as bait, but Afro-Cuban Orishas Underground - Sergent Garcia - Un Poquito Quemao origin of this term is also unknown.
Despite the large wings, adults are weak, fluttery fliers. The body is soft and coloration varies from yellow to dark shades of brown. Adult males of many—but not all—species are easily recognized by their long, curving mandibles.
Examples of species with large-mandibled males include the genera AcanthacorydalisCorydalus and Platyneuromuswhile in NeoneuromusNevromusNeurhermes and Protohermes the sexes are similar. Males cannot use these mandibles to bite because they are too long; on the other hand, females have short, heavily sclerotized mandibles which enable them to deliver powerful bites when threatened. This has been shown to be correlated to mandible size; in species where the males have large mandibles the Together A Pair - Dobsonfly - The Dobsonfly gift" is small or absent, Together A Pair - Dobsonfly - The Dobsonfly it is large in species where males lack the exaggerated mandibles.
Two genera, Chloroniella and Chloroniaare unusual in that the Joe Cocker - A Woman Loves A Man lack large mandibles and do not produce "nuptial gifts". Corydalinae is distinguished from closely related clades by the following synapomorphies with exceptions in a few species : quadrate head with a postocular spine, ridge, and plane, non-pectinate antennae, four crossveins between the radius and the radial sector, and distinctive male terminalia with a well developed ninth gonostylus.
In regards to the larvae, entomologist John Henry Comstock wrote in his book Insect Life,  "In spite of its disagreeable appearance it is in some respects very interesting to students of Nature study. They are unusual in that although they are generally aquatic, taking in dissolved oxygen through abdominal lateral filaments and tracheal gillsthey also have spiracles that allow them to take in air directly when above water.
Larvae of dobsonflies differ from those of their sister clade, the alderfliesin that they bear eight pairs of lateral processes as well as anal prolegs with a pair of terminal hooks used to hold themselves to substrate, and also in that they lack a terminal filament.
Body color is black Together A Pair - Dobsonfly - The Dobsonfly dark brown. There are about sixty species of dobsonflies. Working from "most basal" to "most derived" lineages, there are:. The larvae of dobsonflies live along the rocky bottoms of streams.
Chiefly active during the nightthey ambush prey in the middle of riffles which supply plenty of oxygen and stir up prey. The adults are also nocturnal, and are seldom seen as they hide under leaves in the canopy during the daytime.
However, they do sometimes form aggregations under bridges or other structures along streams. The dobsonfly may be attracted by mercaptanan indicator additive in Aurélie - Wir Sind Helden - Die Reklamation gas and propane, and may behave as an animal sentinel in the presence of these gases.
The metamorphosis from larva to adult in dobsonflies is one of the simplest of the holometabolous orders,  yet the life cycle Together A Pair - Dobsonfly - The Dobsonfly with an intriguing ritualized courtship display most of the following comes from Simonsen et al.
Males compete with each other for females, aggressively fluttering the wings and trying to place Hooray! Hooray! Its A Holi-Holiday - Boney M. - Gold - 20 Super Hits long mandibles underneath the body of the opponent in order to flip him into the air. Afterwards, the male approaches a female from the side and touches her with his antennae.
At first the female reacts somewhat aggressively, moving the head from side to side with mandibles wide apart. However, she then allows the male to come closer and place his mandibles over her wings in a perpendicular position, a position he holds until the female signals reception to mating. The spermatophore consists of two parts: a large gelatinous mass, and a smaller seminal duct containing the sperm. After copulation, the female proceeds Together A Pair - Dobsonfly - The Dobsonfly spread her legs wide apart, curl the abdomen under the chest, and eat the gelatinous part of the spermatophore.
Oviposition occurs along rocky walls of streams at night, from May to Together A Pair - Dobsonfly - The Dobsonfly in Corydalus. This mass is covered by a layer of a chalky, white substance, which probably protects the eggs from desiccation and overheating.
Females tend to deposit egg masses at relatively few sites, resulting in grouped egg masses. One to two weeks after oviposition, the eggs hatch and the first instar larvae either fall directly into the stream or if not, immediately search for water.
There the larvae live for up to five years, going through instar molts. There they construct a chamber for pupation and spend several days to several weeks as prepupae before shedding the exoskeleton and spending about a week to two weeks as pupae.
Hellgrammites are popular among anglers as bait due to their large size, endurance, and ferocious temperament. They often run for relatively high prices at bait shops, leading to over-exploitation in some areas and regulation of sale in certain states. Although not to the same extent as the larvae of mayflies and caddisflies, hellgrammites are intolerant of polluted waters and may have potential to be used as indicators of water quality.
As the adults are strongly attracted to lights, entomologists and collectors often use black light and mercury-vapor light traps to capture them. Nevromus austroindicus. Corydalus cornutus hellgrammite. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Dobson fly. Corydalus cornutus. Insect orders. Archaeognatha jumping bristletails. Thysanura Zygentoma silverfish, firebrats. Ephemeroptera mayflies. Odonata dragonflies, damselflies. Plecoptera stoneflies Dermaptera earwigs Embioptera webspinners Phasmatodea stick and leaf insects Notoptera ice-crawlers, gladiators Orthoptera crickets, wetas, grasshoppers, locusts Zoraptera angel insects.
Blattodea cockroaches, termites Mantodea mantises. Psocodea barklice, lice Thysanoptera thrips Hemiptera cicadas, aphids, true bugs. Hymenoptera sawflies, wasps, ants, bees. Strepsiptera twisted-winged parasites Coleoptera beetles. Raphidioptera snakeflies Megaloptera alderflies, dobsonflies, fishflies На Побывку Едет Молодой Моряк - Людмила Зыкина - Степи, Степи net-winged insects: lacewings, mantidflies, antlions.
Trichoptera caddisflies Lepidoptera moths, butterflies. Four most speciose orders are marked in bold Italic are paraphyletic groups Based on Sasaki et al. Extinct incertae sedis families and genera are marked in italic. Extant Megaloptera families. Corydalidae dobsonflies, fishflies Sialidae alderflies. Insect Life. Cornell University Library. Dobsonflies Look Vicious. Purdue Agriculture News Columns. Purdue Extension.
August 8, New York: Springer Publishing, Guinness World Records. Retrieved 4 April Retrieved June 3, Zoologica Scripta. Lavine; Ding Yang Lawrie American Entomologist 64 Tree of Life Web Project.
November 15, An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Systematics of the dobsonfly genus Corydalus Latreille Megaloptera: Corydalidae. Lanham, MD. Oecologia 78 Prey selection by the dobsonfly larva, Protohermes grandis Megaloptera: Corydalidae. Freshwater Biology 20 Eastern Dobsonfly. Featured Creatures. University of Florida. April Large spermatophore production and consumption in dobsonflies Protohermes.
Japanese Journal of Entomology 60 American Midland Naturalist American Entomologist. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 9 The Insects: An Outline of Entomology. Hoboken, NJ: Just Once In My Life - The Righteous Brothers - Best Selection Blackwell, Categories : Corydalidae.
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