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The fight-or-flight response also called hyperarousalor the acute stress response is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful eventattackor threat to survival.
This response is recognised as the first stage of the general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms. The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates heart ratedigestionrespiratory ratepupillary responseurinationand sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response and its role is mediated by two different components: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
The sympathetic nervous system originates in the spinal cord and its main function is to activate the physiological changes that occur during the fight-or-flight response. This component of the autonomic nervous system utilises and activates the release of norepinephrine in the reaction. The parasympathetic nervous system originates in the sacral spinal cord and medullaphysically surrounding the sympathetic origin, and works in concert with the sympathetic nervous system.
Its main function is to activate the "rest and digest" response and return the body to homeostasis after the fight or flight response. This system utilises and activates the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The reaction begins in the amygdalawhich triggers a neural response in the hypothalamus. The initial reaction is followed by activation of the pituitary gland and secretion of the hormone ACTH. The release of chemical messengers results in the production of the hormone cortisolwhich increases blood pressureblood sugarand suppresses the immune system.
This boost of energy is activated by epinephrine binding to liver cells and the subsequent production of glucose. The physiological changes that occur during the fight or flight response are activated in order to give the body increased strength and speed in anticipation of fighting or running.
Some of the specific physiological changes and their functions include:  . In the context of the fight or flight response, emotional regulation is used proactively to avoid threats of stress or to control the level of emotional arousal. During the reaction, the intensity of emotion that is brought on by Fight Or Flee - Marvin* - Devil In The Distance stimulus will also determine the nature and intensity of the behavioral response.
The specific components of cognitions in the fight or flight Rose Royce - Stronger Than Ever seem to be largely negative. These negative cognitions may be characterised by: attention to negative stimuli, the perception of ambiguous situations as negative, and the recurrence of recalling negative The Dancer - Stanley Clarke - School Days (8-Track Cartridge, Album). Perceived control relates to an individual's thoughts about control over situations and events.
Therefore, overestimation or underestimation of perceived control can lead to anxiety and aggression. The social information processing model proposes a variety of factors that determine behavior in the context of social situations and preexisting thoughts. An evolutionary psychology explanation is that early animals had to react to threatening stimuli quickly and did not have time to psychologically and physically prepare themselves.
The fight or flight response provided them with the mechanisms to rapidly respond to threats against survival. A typical example of the stress response is a grazing zebra. If the zebra sees a lion closing in for the kill, the stress response is activated as a means to escape its predator.
A similar example involving fight is of a Allegro Appassionato - Ludwig Van Beethoven - String Quartets Op.
132 & Op. 59 No. 3 about to be attacked by a dog. The cat shows accelerated heartbeat, piloerection hair standing on endand pupil dilation, all signs of sympathetic arousal. Fight Or Flee - Marvin* - Devil In The Distance respond to threats in many complex ways. Rats, for instance, try to escape when threatened, but will fight when cornered.
Some animals stand perfectly still so that predators will not see them. Many animals freeze or play dead when touched in the hope that the predator will lose interest. Other animals have alternative self-protection methods. Some species of cold-blooded animals change color swiftly, to camouflage themselves. Thus, flight can be disappearing to another location or just disappearing in place.
And often both fight and flight are combined in a given situation. The fight or flight actions also have polarity — the individual can either fight or flee against something that is threatening, such as a hungry lion, or fight for or fly towards something that is needed, such as the safety of the shore from a raging river.
A threat from another animal does not always result in immediate fight or flight. There may be a period of heightened awareness, during which each animal interprets behavioral signals from the other. Signs such as paling, piloerection, immobility, sounds, and body language communicate the status and intentions of each animal. There may be a sort of negotiation, after which fight or flight may ensue, but which might also result in playing, mating, or nothing at all. An example of this is kittens playing: each kitten shows the signs of sympathetic arousal, but they never inflict real damage.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Fight or Flee. For other uses, see Fight or Flight. See also: Autonomic nervous system. See also: Sympathetic nervous system. See also: Parasympathetic nervous system. See also: Emotional self-regulation. See also: Control psychology. See also: Social information processing cognition. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Some references say he first described the response in in The American Journal of Physiology.
Wisdom of the Body. United States: W. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Science Fight Or Flee - Marvin* - Devil In The Distance . Hufflington Fight Or Flee - Marvin* - Devil In The Distance. April 19, Retrieved 16 August Medical Student's Library.
In Janig, W ed. Human Physiology 2 ed. University of Washington. Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 18 April Trends in Immunology.
Washington University, St. University of Utah. Archived from the original on 8 August Fridlund and Daniel Reisberg Psychology 6 ed. Weber State University. Archived from the original on Retrieved Olatunji; Matthew T. Feldner; John P. Forsyth Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. Psychological Inquiry. Personality and Individual Differences.
Behaviour Research and Therapy. Lovibond October Cognitive Therapy and Research. Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. United States: Penguin Books. Journal of Affective Disorders. Overestimation of social competence and subsequent adjustment in aggressive and nonaggressive children".
Journal of Fight Or Flee - Marvin* - Devil In The Distance Child Psychology. Psychological Bulletin. Journal of Child Development. Smithiana Monographs. Developmental Cell. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from October All articles needing additional references Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government.
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