Label: RCA Victrola - VIC-1634 • Format: Vinyl LP, Mono • Country: US • Genre: Classical • Style: Baroque
Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Western art musical canon. The Bach family already counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. From he was employed Lexploitation - Astros 2000 - Astros 2000 Thomaskantor cantor at St.
Thomas in Leipzig. He composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, and for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum. From he published some of his keyboard music. In Leipzig, as had happened during some of his earlier positions, he had difficult relations with his employer, a situation that was little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by his sovereign, AugustusElector of Saxony and King of Poland, in In the last decades of his life he reworked and extended many of his earlier compositions.
He died of complications after eye surgery in at the age of Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpointharmonic and motivic organisation, and his adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures I - LOST (15) - Rehearsal II abroad, particularly from Italy and France.
Bach's compositions include hundreds of cantatasboth sacred and secular. He often adopted Lutheran hymnsnot only in his larger vocal works, but for instance also in his four-part chorales and sacred songs. He wrote extensively for organ and for other keyboard instruments.
He composed concertosfor instance for violin and for harpsichordand suitesas chamber music as well as for orchestra. Many of his works employ contrapuntal genres such as fugue. Throughout the 18th century Bach was mostly renowned as an organist while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavierwas appreciated for its didactic qualities.
Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals exclusively devoted to him, and publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis BWV, a numbered catalogue of his works and new critical editions of his compositions. His music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangementsincluding the Air on the G String. Bach was born in in Eisenachin the duchy of Saxe-Eisenachinto an extensive musical family.
His father, Johann Ambrosius Bachwas the director of the town musicians, and all of his uncles were professional musicians. His father probably taught him to play the violin and harpsichordand his brother Johann Christoph Bach taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much of the contemporary music.
One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach —introduced him to the organ, and an older second cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach —was a well-known composer and violinist. Bach's mother died The Coming Of Winter - Paul Harmann - Survival - The Natural Worldand his father died eight months later.
Also during this time, he was taught theology, Latin, Greek, French, and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 AprilBach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach's elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St.
In addition to singing in the choir, he played the school's three-manual organ and harpsichords. In Januaryshortly after graduating from St. Despite strong family connections and a musically enthusiastic employer, tension built up between Bach and the authorities after several years in the post. Bach was dissatisfied with the standard of singers in the choir. He called one of them a "Zippel Fagottist" weenie bassoon player.
Late one evening this student, named Geyersbach, went after Bach with a stick. Bach filed a complaint against Geyersbach with the authorities. They acquitted Geyersbach with a minor reprimand and ordered Bach to be more moderate regarding the musical qualities he expected from his students. She remained to help run the household until her death in Johann Sebastian and Maria Barbara had three more children, who however did Braincracking - DJ B.A.
- The Forgotten Town Tape Collection 99 live to their first birthday, including twins born in Bach's time in Weimar was the start of a sustained period of composing keyboard and orchestral works. He attained the proficiency and confidence to extend the prevailing structures and include influences from abroad.
He learned to write dramatic openings and employ the dynamic rhythms and harmonic schemes found in the No. 10 In G; No. 11 In G-Minor - J.S. Bach* - Wanda Landowska - Plays Bach Vol. II of Italians such as VivaldiCorelliand Torelli. Bach absorbed these stylistic aspects in part by transcribing Vivaldi's string and wind concertos for harpsichord and organ; many of these transcribed works are still regularly performed.
Bach was particularly attracted to the Italian style, in which one or more solo instruments alternate section-by-section with the full orchestra throughout a movement. In Weimar, Bach continued to play and compose for the organ and perform concert music with the duke's ensemble. Bach also started work on the Little Organ Book in Weimar, containing traditional Lutheran chorale tunes set in complex textures. InBach was offered a post in Halle when he advised the authorities during a renovation by Christoph Cuntzius of the main organ in the west gallery of the Market Church of Our Dear Lady.
In the spring ofBach was promoted to Konzertmeisteran honour that entailed performing a church cantata monthly in the castle church. BWV for Pentecost. Prince Leopold, himself a musician, appreciated Bach's talents, paid him well and gave him considerable latitude in composing and performing.
The prince was a Calvinist and did not use elaborate music in his worship; accordingly, most of Bach's work from this period was secular,  including the orchestral suitescello suitessonatas and partitas for solo violinand Brandenburg Concertos. A significant influence upon Bach's musical development during his years with the prince is recorded by Stauffer as Bach's "complete embrace of dance music, perhaps the most important influence on his mature style other than his adoption of Vivaldi's Postcards From A Young Man - Manic Street Preachers - National Treasures - The Complete Singles in Weimar.
Thomas Church in Leipzig, which provided music for four churches in the city: the Thomaskirche and Nikolaikirche St. Peter's Church. Johann Kuhnau had No. 10 In G; No. 11 In G-Minor - J.S. Bach* - Wanda Landowska - Plays Bach Vol. II Thomaskantor in Leipzig from until his death on 5 June Bach had visited Leipzig during Kuhnau's tenure: in he attended the service at the St. Thomas Church on the first Sunday of Advent,  and in he had tested the organ of the Paulinerkirche.
After being offered the position, Bach was invited to Leipzig only after Georg Philipp Telemann indicated that he would not be interested in relocating to Leipzig. Bach was required to instruct the students of the Thomasschule in singing and provide church music for the main churches in Leipzig.
He was also assigned to teach Latin but was allowed to employ four "prefects" deputies to do this instead. The prefects also aided with musical instruction. Bach usually led performances of his cantatasmost of which were composed within three years of his relocation to Leipzig. Bach collected his cantatas in annual cycles. Five are mentioned in obituaries, three are extant. Bach started a second annual cycle the first Sunday after Trinity of and composed only chorale cantataseach based on a single church hymn.
Bach drew the soprano and alto choristers from the school and the tenors and basses from the school and elsewhere in Leipzig. Performing at weddings and funerals provided extra income for these groups; it was probably for this purpose, and for in-school training, that he wrote at least six motets.
Bach's predecessor as cantor, Johann Kuhnauhad also been music director for the Paulinerkirchethe church of Leipzig University. But when Bach was installed as cantor inhe was put in charge only of music for festal church holiday services at the Paulinerkirche ; his petition to also provide music for regular Sunday services there for a corresponding salary increase went all the way to the Elector but was denied. After this, inBach "lost interest" in working even for festal services at the Paulinerkirche and appeared there only on "special occasions".
Bach broadened his composing and performing beyond the liturgy by taking over, in March No. 10 In G; No. 11 In G-Minor - J.S. Bach* - Wanda Landowska - Plays Bach Vol. IIthe directorship of the Collegium Musicuma secular performance ensemble started by Telemann.
This was one of the dozens of private societies in the major German-speaking cities that were established by musically active university students; these societies had become increasingly important in public musical life and were typically led by the most prominent professionals in a city.
In the words of Christoph Wolffassuming the directorship was a shrewd move that "consolidated Bach's firm grip on Leipzig's principal musical institutions". He presented the manuscript to the Elector in an eventually successful bid to persuade the prince to give him the title of Court Composer. Bach's appointment as Court Composer was an element of his long-term struggle to achieve greater bargaining power with the Leipzig council.
The king played a theme for Bach and challenged him to improvise a fugue based on his theme. Bach obliged, playing a three-part fugue on one of Frederick's fortepianoswhich was a new type of instrument at the time. Upon his return to Leipzig he composed a set of fugues and canons, and a trio sonata, based on the Thema Regium theme of the king. Within a few weeks this music was published as The Musical Offering and dedicated to Frederick.
Two large-scale compositions occupied a central place in Bach's last years. From around he wrote and revised the various canons and fugues of The Art of Fuguewhich he continued to prepare for publication until shortly before his death. Stauffer describes it as "Bach's most universal church work. Consisting mainly of recycled movements from cantatas written over a thirty-five-year period, it allowed Bach to survey his vocal pieces one last time and pick select movements for further revision and refinement.
Bach's health was, however, declining. From an early age, Bach studied the works of his musical contemporaries of the Baroque period and those of prior generations, and those influences were reflected in his music. Bach's music was harmonically more innovative than his peer composers, employing surprisingly dissonant chords and progressions, often with extensive exploration of harmonic possibilities within one piece.
The No. 10 In G; No. 11 In G-Minor - J.S. Bach* - Wanda Landowska - Plays Bach Vol. II of sacred works Bach created are usually seen as manifesting not just his craft but also a truly devout relationship with God.
In elaborating these hymns into his chorale preludes, he wrote more cogent and tightly integrated works than most, even when they were massive and lengthy. For example, the St Matthew Passionlike other works of its kind, illustrated the Passion with Bible text reflected in recitatives, arias, choruses, and chorales, but in crafting this work, Bach created an overall experience that has been found over the intervening centuries to be both musically thrilling and spiritually profound.
Bach published or carefully compiled in manuscript many collections of pieces that explored the range of artistic and technical possibilities inherent in almost every genre of his time except opera.
For example, The Well-Tempered Clavier comprises two books, each of which presents a prelude and fugue in every major and minor key, displaying a dizzying variety of structural, contrapuntal and fugal techniques. Four-part harmonies predate Bach, but he lived during a time when modal music in Western tradition was largely supplanted in favour of the tonal system.
In this system a piece of music progresses from one chord to the next according to certain rules, each chord being characterised by four notes. The principles of four-part harmony are found not only in Bach's four-part choral music: he also prescribes it for instance for the figured bass accompaniment. Some examples of this characteristic of Bach's style and its influence:. Bach's insistence on the tonal system and contribution to shaping it did not imply he was less at ease with the older modal system and the genres associated with it: more than his contemporaries who had "moved on" to the tonal system without much exceptionBach often returned to the then-antiquated modi and genres.
His Chromatic Fantasia and Fugueemulating the chromatic fantasia genre as used by earlier composers such as Dowland and Sweelinck in D dorian mode comparable to D minor in the tonal systemis an example of this. Modulationor changing key in the course of a piece, is another style characteristic where Bach goes beyond what was usual in his time.
Baroque instruments vastly limited modulation possibilities: keyboard instruments, prior to a workable system of temperamentlimited the keys that could be modulated to, and wind instruments, especially brass instruments such as trumpets and hornsabout a century before they were fitted with valves, were tied to You Go To My Head - The Tommy Flanagan Trio* - The Tommy Flanagan Trio key of their tuning.
Bach pushed the limits: he added "strange tones" in his organ playing, confusing the singing, according to an indictment he had to face in Arnstadt,  and Louis Marchandanother early experimenter with modulation, seems to have avoided confrontation with Bach because the latter went further than anyone had done before. The major development taking place in Bach's time, and to which he contributed My Rodee (Radio Full) - 901 Thugz - My Rodee no small way, was a temperament for keyboard instruments that allowed their use in all available keys 12 major and 12 minor and also modulation without retuning.
Bach was generally quite specific on ornamentation in his compositions where in his time much of the ornamentation was not written out by composers but rather considered a liberty of the performer and his ornamentation was often quite elaborate.
For instance, the "Aria" of the Goldberg Variations has rich ornamentation in nearly every measure.